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Romania, zone turistice - Muntenia and Oltenia Tourism, travel, accommodation, vacations, mountain, sea, round-trip, trips, monasteries, maps and photo in Romania width Romanian
  Muntenia and Oltenia

     - geographical situation: Bucharest is located in the southern part of the country, in the centre of the Romanian Plain, at an altitude of 70-80 m and at about 60 km from the Danube, Bucharest Map100 km from the Carpathians and 250 km from the Black Sea, where parallel of 44026- northern latitude meets the meridian of 260 06- eastern longitude. The capital includes six districts;
     - neighbours: it is surrounded by Ilfov county;
     - surface: 228 square km;
     - population: more than 2,000,000 inhabitants;
     - towns: BUCURESTI-capital of Romania, the first city in Romania in terms of size and importance (political, economical, banking-financial, commercial, cultural-scientific, touristic) and one of the greatest cities of the world, situated at the same altitude as Genova (Italy), Bordeaux (France), Minneapolis (USA), surrounded by a chain of lakes, adorned with willow and lime trees, guarded by poplars, old citadel of the country;
     - relief: it is a plain fragmented by valleys, with local terraces covered with loess. The structure decreases slowly from north-west and south-east, the average altitude being of 60 m. The city is cut by rivers (not deep ones-Dambovita and Colentina), with wide and young meadows, where there laid the famous woods of Vlasia, with natural resources;
     - climate: it is continental moderate, with excessive influences, the average annual temperature being of 10-11-C. The dominant winds blow from east and west in the southern part of the capital and from north and north-east in the north of Bucharest. Sometimes, summers are very hot, with temperatures of 35-40-C, although the average temperature in July doesn't go beyond 23-C; winters are cold with abundant snows, blizzards and an average temperatue in January getting down to -3-C;
     - watercourses: the Dambovita river (on a distance of 24 km) and its tributary, Colentina (which crosses the northern part of the city on a distance of 33 km, windling river), which have parallel courses from north-west to south-east. A lot of pictoresque lakes have been formed, points of attraction and leisure, mostly of them arranged: Baneasa, Herastrau, Floreasca, Tei, Chitila, Mogosoaia, Fundeni, Pantelimon.


Historical Vestiges

     - The Old Court-it represents the traces of an important Wallachian political and administrative centre, the most significant medieval buidings (15th-18th centuries) in the present city. The fortress, built during the reign of ruler Vlad the Impaler (much stronger and bigger than the previous one) combines the needs of a fortified point with those of the Royal Court settlement. Today, one can visit an open air museum, where large catacombs can be seen under the ground as well as the columns in the Conference Hall etc.;
     - The New Court (or the Burnt Court)-it was erected by Alexandru Ipsilanti in 1776, seriously damaged by earthquakes and fires; nowadays, there can only be seen part of the walls and the cellars;
     - The Coltea Hospital-the first hospital in Bucharest (1704), built by the sword bearer Michael Cantacuzino; the present building was erected in 1888 and represents one of the architectural successes from the end of the 19th century;
     - The Melik House-(1760), the oldest civil building in Bucharest, preserved in its original form; it belonged to the Melik family since 1820; nowadays, it shelters the "Th. Pallady" Museum;
     - Manuc's Inn-it aws built by the great merchant Manuc-bey, in the first decade of the 19th century; nowadays, one of the most important historical and architectural monuments in Bucharest;

- The Fire Watch Tour-(1892-1983), 50 m in height, it served both as a fire watch tower and a firemen station; nowadays, it hosts the Firemen Museum;
     - The Ghica Palace-(1822), it was built by ruler Grigore Dimitrie Ghica, one of the most imposing buildings, representative monument of the Wallachian Neoclassical style;
     - The Stirbei Palace-(1835), in Neoclassical style, it was built according to the plans of the French architect Sanjouand. This elegant and light edifice, with Greek elements, belonged for a while to the prince family Stirbei; nowadays, it shelters the Museum of Ceramics and Glass;
     - The Sutu Palace-(1833-1834), in Neogothic style, with elements of Romanic style, it belonged to the great minister of foreign affairs, Costache Grigore -u-was one of the most frequented palaces of the city in the 19th century; at present, it shelters the Museum of History and Art of Bucharest;
     - The University Palace-(1857-1869), it was built according to the plans of the architect Al. Orascu, who was helped in decorating the exterior walls by K. Storck. In this massive construction, there functions the oldest institution of university education in Bucharest;
     - The Cotroceni Palace-(1893), it was built according to the plans of the French architect, Paul Gottereau, as permanent residence of the heir prince Ferdinand. The palace is situated in the middle of a beautiful garden, it detains many elements of Romanian architecture; at present, it is used as residence of the President of the country;
     - The Palace of Justice-(1890-1895), it was built in French Renaissance style, according to the plans of the architect, A. Ballu The construction was finished by Ion Mincu. The statues at the entrance are the work of K. Storck and symbolize the Law, the Righteousness, the Justice, the Truth, the Force, the Prudence;
     - The "Cantacuzino" Palace-(1898-1900), it was built in French Baroque style, the inside wall are rich in decorations and paintings; nowadays, it hosts the "George Enescu" Museum;
     - The Palace of Parliament (People's House)-(1984-1989), the grandest administrative construction in Europe. It has hundreds of offices, halls for reception of for scientific, cultural, social-political reunions, dozens of conference rooms. It covers over 265,000 square m interior surface, being the second biggest in the world after the Pentagon building in Washington. It is the third in the world in what concerns its volume, after the Cape Canaveral building in USA (where the cosmic rockets are assemblied) and after the Quetzalcoatl pyramid in Mexico.

Religious Buildings

     - The Complex of the Patriarchy-a large size construction, built between 1656-1658, by ruler Constantin Serban Basarab and finished in time of Radu Leon (1664-1669), when it became the headquarters of the Metropolitan Church. It resembles a lot the bishop church from Curtea de Arges, the difference is made by its larger size and the wide open veranda;
     - "Curtea Veche" Church-one of the most valuable buildings of religious architecture from the Feudal Age, the oldest in Bucharest. It is preserved in its initial form built between 1545-1547 by the ruler Mircea Ciobanul for the needs of the Ruling Court. There are also preserved some frescos from the reign of Stefan Cantacuzino (who made several repairs); it was declared historical monument;
     - Marcuta Church-old historical monument (1586-1587), with interesting structure and decoration details. Inside, it preserves some fragments of 16th century paintings;

- "Mihai Voda" Monastery-(1589-1591), it was built by great voivode Michael the Brave, on the place of an old church. It had strong defence walls and royal houses that later were used as residence of Fanar kings. The present complex includes: the Church (architectural and historical monument), the Palace of the State Archives and the Belfry;
     - "Radu Voda" Monastery-(1568), it was built by Mircea Ciobanu's son, set on fire by the Turks withdrawing from the glorious attack of Michael the Brave and restored during the reign of Radu Mihnea. It hosts Gh. T㴴㲥scu 's paintings. It is an important monument of the capital due to its troubled history and artistical value;
     - Plumbuita Monastery-the works started during the reign of Petru Vod㠴he Young (1559-1568) and were ended under Mihnea Turcitul. The complex includes: the Church, the Belfry, the Cells and the Royal House (today it hosts a museum of religious art objects). Inside, it preserves original wall paintings;
     - "Fundenii Doamnei" Monastery-edifice realised through the efforts of Mihai Cantacuzino, finished in 1699. It preserves the painting made by PⲶu Mutu, the painter of Br⮣oveanu Epoch. The facades of the church are entirely decorated with oriental elements like the Persian miniatures;
     - Antim Monastery-(1714-1715), it was founded by the metropolitan bishop of Georgian origin, Antim Ivireanu, one of the outstanding cultural personalities of Constantin Br⮣oveanu's reign. The monastery is one of the most beautiful architectural monuments in Bucharest belonging, by decoration and conception, to the Br⮣ovenesque style. K. Storck added several beautiful wood sculptures;
     - Kretzulescu Church-(1720-1722), monument synthesizing in its architecture the art of Br⮣oveanu Epoch. It was built through the efforts of the great chancellor, Iordache Kretzulescu and his wife, Safta (one of the daughters of Constantin Br⮣oveanu). The interior wall painting was realised by Gh. T㴴㲥scu (1859-1860);
     - Stavropoleos Church-(1724-1730), it was built through the efforts of the Greek archimandrite Ioanichie. It has rich adornments (especially the veranda) and impresses by the exterior painting and the decorativeness;
     - "Sf. Gheorghe Nou" Church-the greatest church founded by Constantin Br⮣oveanu at the end of the 17th century. It was destroyed in a fire and rebuilt between 1852-1853;
     - Biserica Doamnei-The Lady's Church-it was built by Lady Maria and her husband, Serban Cantacuzino in 1683. It has wall paintings from the 17th century;
     - Coltea Church-it was built by Cantacuzino between 1701-1702. It has rich adornments specific to the Brancovenesque style; the frescos are painted by Gh. Tattarescu ;
     - "Dintr-o zi"-"In One Day" Church-historical and architectural monument built in 1702;
     - Biserica "Negustori"-(1725-1726), cu fragmente de picturi originale executate de Parvu Mutu, si pictura realizata de Gh. Tattarescu;
     - "Negustori"-"Merchants" Church-(1725-1726), fragments of original paintings made by Parvu Mutu and painting realised by Gh. Tattarescu;
     - The "Icon's Church"-(1745-1750), historical monument, it was painted in oil by Gh. T㴴㲥scu.

Cultural Buildings

     - Romanian Athaeneum-one of the most representative buildings of the capital, it was built between 1886-1888, according to the plans of the French architect, Albert Galleron. The money necessary for the construction were raised through public subscription. The exterior architecture is a combination of styles: Neoclassical, Baroque, Ionic;
     - The National Theatre-imposing building realised between 1967-1970, according to the project of a series of architects coordinated by Horia Maicu, Romeo Stefan and N. Cucu;
     - The National Opera-(1953), it was built according to the plans of the architect, Octav Doicescu;
     - The Romanian National Museum of History-the largest in the country, a real fresco of the historical evolution on the territory of Romania. It has more than 50,000 pieces of great value, depicting the development of the Romanian society, from the oldest times until present. Through the inestimable richness and variety of its exhibits, the Museum is an objective of great attraction for tourists;
     - The Romanian National Museum of Art-it hosts more than 70,000 pieces exhibited in the Romanian Art Department (Feudal, Modern and Contemporary), and the Universal Art Department (European, Oriental). Among the numerous artists whose works are here, we can mention: Gh. Tattarescu, Th. Aman, N. Grigorescu, St. Luchian, Th. Pallady, N. Tonitza, C. Brancusi, D. Paciurea, I. Jalea, Antonello de Messina, Rembrandt, Rubens, Delacroix, Renoir, Monet;
     - The Village Museum-one of the world's most interesting ethnographical parks in open air. It was founded by Dimitrie Gusti in 1936. The Museum illustrates the perpetual spring of surprising originality. The houses and householdings are exhibited according to their ethnographical areas;
     - "Grigore Antipa" Museum of Natural History-the biggest museum of this kind and the oldest in the Danubian countries. It represents a treasure of the organic universe. The museum has over 300,000 exhibits and one of the richest butterfly collections in the world;
     - The Museum of Art and History of Bucharest-it is sheltered by the Sutu Palace and exhibits more than 150,000 pieces which depict the history of Bucharest from the oldest times (Neolithic) up to present;
     - The National Military Museum-it has an inestimable military history patrimony, organized into 32 collections (weapons, documents, paintings, uniforms, flags, medals). These exhibits offer a meaningful image of the glorious Romanian military history;
     - The Museum of Romanian Literature-with a valuable found of manuscripts, documents, old books, first editions. The exhibits offer an elloquent image of the Romanian literature and outline its relation to life and aspirations of the people;
     - "Theodor Aman" Museum-the exhibits, mostly of them works of the artist (paintings, engravings), evoke, in the nine halls, the stages of the painter (1831-1891), in his creative work. The Museum is organised in the very house where the artist lived and which was decorated by himself;
     - "George Enescu" Memorial Museum-it is sheltered by the Cantacuzino Palace. Here, the great musician lived and created. G. Enescu is the founder of the Romanian School of Music. A polivalent personality, George Enescu (1881-1955), manifested himsef with brillance, both as composer and musician;
     - "Gh. Tattarescu " Memorial Museum-the Museum is organised in the house where the famous painter lived and created over three decades. Gh. Tattarescu (1820-1894) is one of the founders of the artistic education in Romania, being especially remarked in portrait painting and as church painter;

- Museum of Art Collections-with valuable works of Romanian and foreign painting, glass icons, drawings, engravings, sculptures in wood and ivory, pottery from different countries;
     - "Cotroceni" National Museum-with collections of old European art;
     - Museum of the Romanian Peasant-it includes many pieces of folk Romanian and foreign art. In 1996, it was declared by the Council of Europe the best European Museum of the year;
     - Museum of the National Theatre-it was founded at the initiative of the writer Liviu Rebreanu, manager of the theatre in 1942;
     - Firemen Museum-it is hosted by the Fire Watch Tower and exhibits maps, weapons, special devices of the firemen;
     - "Cornel Medrea" Museum-it includes a large part of the sculptor's works (1888-1964), offering a good vision over the creation of this important artist;
     - "C. I. and C. C. Nottara" Memorial Museum-its exhibits illustrate the activity of the actor C. I. Nottara and of the composer C. C. Nottara.

Monuments and Statues

     - The Arch of Triumph-(1935-1937), marble and stone gate of the capital (37 m in height), it was built in honour of the victory obtained by Romanian armies in First World War. The monument was realised according to the plans of the architect Petre Antonescu. The facades have been decorated in Romanian style by some famous artists, I. Jalea, C. Medrea, D. Paciurea;
     - Monument of the Heroes-it consists in a statuary group that represents a pilot, a sailor and an infantryman. It is a proof of the patriotism, courage, dedication and devotion demonstrated by the soldiers who sacrificed their lives for defending and gaining the freedom of the country. The monument is realised by the sculptors, M. Butunoiu, I. Damaceanu, Ionescu Tene;
     - The Equestrian Statue of Michael the Brave-(1874), it was sculpted by A. Carierr Belleuse; it represents one of the most important rulers (1593-1601), leader in the battle of the Romanian people against the Ottoman domination. Michael the Brave succeeded to reunite under his authority, for a short period of time, the three Romanian countries: Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania;
     - The Statue of Mihai Cantacuzino-it is located in the courtyard of the Coltea Hospital (Cantacuzino was the founder of the hospital), the first one erected in Bucharest (1865-1869), realised in Carrara marble by K. Storck;
     - The Statue of Constantin Brancoveanu-imposing statue realised by the sculptor Oscar Han, in 1939. It was made in memory of the great man of culture, ruler of Wallachia, Constantin Brancoveanu (1688-1714);
     - The Air Monument-it was realised by the sculptor F. L. Gove in 1937. It is an earth globe supported by the wings of four eagles. It is a decorative architectural composition symbolizing the flight;
     - Monument of the Air Heroes-(1930-1935), it was realised by I. Fekete and Lidia Kotzebue. The main element is an imposing Icarus with wide opened wings;
     - Monument of the Firemen-it was made by the sculptor W. Hegel. The monument is dedicated to the firemen heroes who responded to the Ottoman armies that had come to stop the revolution of 1848;
     - Monument of the CFR Heroes-it belongs to the sculptors C. Medrea and I. Jalea, honouring the participation of the railway workers to the First World War;
     - Monument of the French Heroes-it is sculpted in Carrara marble by I. Jalea. It honours the French soldiers who died during First World War on the Romanian territory;
     - Statue of Tudor Vladimirescu-it was realised by the sculptor Teodor Bulca. It represents the leader of the revolutionary movement of 1821, holding the sword in one hand, and the Romanian flag in the other;
     - Statue of Mihail Kogalniceanu-it was made by Oscar Han, in 1936. It represents the brilliant politician, historian and writer;
     - Statue of Ion Heliade Radulescu-the work of the Italian sculptor, Ettore Ferrari. The statue represents the great scholar and politician in the characteristic attitude of oratorians;
     - Statue of Gh. Lazar-it was realised by the sculptor I. Georgescu, evoking the figure of the great Enlightenment scholar (1779-1823);
     - Statue of Carol Davilla-it was made by K. Storck. The statue presents the founder of the Romanian university medical education;
     - Statue of Lady Balasa-it was also made by K. Storck. It presents the daughter of the great voivode, Constantin Br⮣oveanu.
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